BT Arise II - шаблон joomla Продвижение

Preposition: To

1. To indicates the destination of a verb.       

Pattern 1: verb + to + ø noun
I'm going to bed.
They ride to school on the bus.
 

Nouns commonly used after to:
bed, breakfast, church, dinner, jail, lunch, school, work                

 Exception:            

 go ø home
It is time to go home.
They went home on the bus.
               

 Pattern 2: verb + to + the + noun
We go to the park every afternoon.
Call when you get to the office.
                       

Verbs often used with to:
come, drive, extend, fall, fly, get, go, hike, move, return, ride, rise, run, send, ship, sink, walk                      

 Expression:
to rise to the occasion—to force oneself to act correctly
I was surprised when he walked in, but I rose to the occasion and shook his hand.               

 2. To indicates the destination of a noun.            

 Pattern 1: noun + to + noun
The train to New York leaves at six o'clock.
We wanted to go on a cruise to the Caribbean.
            

Typical nouns used before to:
airplane, bridge, bus, climb, cruise, flight, highway, path, race, road, subway, train, trip, way                       

 Pattern 2: noun + be + to + noun
The train is to New York.
His question is to me.
                          

Typical nouns used before to:
answer, card, donation, explanation, gift, letter, memo, offer, petition, present, proposal, question, request, suggestion 

3. To indicates a transfer from a person or place.             

 Pattern: verb + noun + to + noun
He delivers the mail to the office.
She mentioned her plans to me.
          

Typical verbs used before to:
bring, carry, deliver, describe, distribute, donate, explain, give, hand, introduce, lend, mention, pass, present, read, recommend, reveal, send, shout, show, sing, speak, submit, suggest, take, tell, write

4. To indicates a beneficiary.    

 Pattern 1: verb + noun + to + noun
They made a toast to the bride and groom.
                  

Typical verbs used with this pattern:
award, dedicate, devote, give, make                

Typical nouns used before to:
award, dedication, gift, memorial, monument, present, plaque, remark, scholarship, statement, toast            

 Expression:
as a favor to—for the benefit of
We came to help you as a favor to your father.              

 Pattern 2: to + one's + noun
If you shout, someone will come to your aid.
It is to your benefit to join the credit union.
The police came to my rescue when my car broke down.
        

 5. To indicates an effect on the recipient.            

  Pattern 1: be + noun + to + noun
He is a credit to his mother and father.
The airplane noise is a disturbance to the neighborhood.
                   

Nouns commonly used before to:
annoyance, bother, challenge, credit, detriment, discredit, disturbance, help, nuisance         

  Pattern 2: be + adjective + to + noun
His calls are very annoying to me.
                   

Typical adjectives used before to:
abhorrent, acceptable, annoying, beneficial, boring, confusing, crucial, distasteful, detrimental, disturbing, fascinating, gratifying, harmful, helpful, hurtful, important, meaningful, obnoxious, pleasing, precious, preferable, repulsive, satisfying, unacceptable, unfavorable, unimportant, vexing, worrisome                                  

Expression:
to be to one's taste—to be personally pleasing to someone
The apartment is large and expensive, but it's not to my taste.           

Pattern 3: to + one's + noun
To my surprise, everybody was at work on Saturday.
To their delight, the campaign was a great success.
               

Typical nouns:
astonishment, chagrin, delight, disappointment, discomfort, disgrace, disgust, embarrassment, horror, satisfaction, surprise                                                                                                                                  

6. To can indicate a reaction.               

 Pattern 1: verb + to + noun
She responded to my letter right away.
I hope you don't object to my offer of help.
                 

Typical verbs used before to:
adapt, admit, agree, appeal, consent, listen, object, pay attention, prefer, react, relate, reply, respond, revert, subscribe

Pattern 2: noun + to + noun
She has an allergy to that medicine.
Do you have an answer to that question?
        

Typical nouns:
allergy, answer, appeal, aversion, consent, objection, preference, reaction, relation, reply, response             

 Pattern 3: be + adjective + to + noun
She is allergic to that medicine.
We are indebted to you for helping us.
            

Typical adjectives:
accustomed, allergic, grateful, indebted, thankful                   

7. To can indicate someone's behavior toward another person.                                                                                                

Pattern: be + adjective + to + noun
He was very cruel to me.
She has been hostile to her neighbors.
           

Typical adjectives:
affectionate, appreciative, attentive, available, charming, cold, considerate, cordial, cruel, devoted, dreadful, faithful, friendly, gracious, hospitable, hostile, inconsiderate, kind, loyal, mean, nice, obedient, open, pleasant, polite, respectful, sassy, warm                                                                                                                            

8. To can indicate attachment.                      

Pattern 1: verb + noun + to + noun
We will paste the wallpaper to the bedroom walls.
She pinned the flowers to my lapel.
                                        

 Pattern 2: be + past participle of verb + to + noun
Your paper is stapled to mine.
The gum is stuck to my shoe.
                                                  

Typical verbs used with these patterns:
add, affix, adhere, apply, attach, glue, hold, paste, pin, press, nail, screw, sew, staple, stick, tape                 

9. To indicates the end of a period of time; until.            

Pattern: from + to + noun
They work from morning to night.
He was here from two to five.
               

10. To means before, in telling time.                     

Pattern: It + be + number of minutes + to + hour
It is ten (minutes) to three in the afternoon.
It was a quarter (fifteen minutes) to four.

11. To can indicate continuous repetition of an action.        

 Pattern 1: verb + from + noun + to + same noun
We went from door to door with our information sheets.
The bus rocked from side to side.
                                           

Common expressions:
door to door, house to house, place to place, side to side                  

Pattern 2: noun + hyphen + same noun + noun
They have door-to-door service.
                                  

12. To can indicate a comparison of value.                   

Pattern 1: be + adjective + to + noun
His work is comparable to hers.
Your car is similar to mine.
                             

Typical adjectives:
comparable, inferior, preferable, similar, superior                   

Pattern 2: compare + noun + to + noun
Please don't compare my work to yours.
         

Pattern 3: compared + to + noun
She is of medium height, but compared to her sister, she is tall.
        

13. To can indicate a problem or solution.                     

Pattern: noun + to + noun
The strike is a threat to our survival.
She knows the secret to success.
                    

Typical nouns used before to:
Problems: barrier, obstacle, threat
Solutions: answer, antidote, boost, clue, directions, guide, instructions, key, secret, solution   

14. To can indicate ownership, membership, and connection.                                                                                         

Pattern 1: belong/pertain + to + noun
The book belongs to me.
Her friends belong to that club.
This discussion does not pertain to you.
        

Pattern 2: adjective + to + noun
Your comments are not pertinent to this topic.
                

Adjectives used with this meaning:
attached, attributable, committed, connected, dedicated, engaged, exclusive, important, married, obligated, pertinent, promised, relevant, related, seconded, tied

15. To can indicate an exclusive relationship.      

Pattern: the + noun + to + noun
This is the key to my front door.
Have you seen the jacket to my new suit?
She is the new secretary to the chairman.
       

Typical nouns:
assistant, case, cover, door, jacket, key, knob, lid, part, secretary, strap, ticket, top               

16. To indicates the accompaniment of sound.                   

Pattern: verb + to + noun
We danced to the rhythm of the music.
I wake up to the noise of the city.
                    

Typical nouns:
beat, blare, buzz, honk, hum, music, noise, rhythm, roar, sound, strum, tune                        

17. To means leading to an extreme condition.                 

Pattern: verb + noun + to + noun
He tore the paper to pieces.
She drives him to distraction.
              

Common expressions:
beat/grind to a pulp
bore to death
carry to extremes
chill to the bone
cook to perfection
drive to distraction/insanity
grind to dust
move to tears
push/carry/take to the limits
sing/rock to sleep
smash to bits
soak to the skin
starve/freeze to death
tear to pieces/shreds
                           

18. To indicates an upper limitation of an approximation. 

Pattern: number + to + number
It is two to two-and-a-half feet long.
He is thirty-eight to forty years old.
                  

19. To indicates a relationship between the subject and the object.                                                                                                   

Pattern 1: noun + be + adverb + to + noun, to show location
The library is close to the park.
The new theater is adjacent to the mall.

Typical adverbs:
at an angle, close, next    

Pattern 2: noun + be + adjective + noun
That line is parallel to this one.
                       

Typical adjectives:
adjacent, parallel, perpendicular         

 Pattern 3: noun + to + noun, to indicate position
They sat back to back.
She came face to face with danger.
                             

Pattern 4: number + to + number, to give the score of a game
The score was three to two.                                                                 

Pattern 5: amount + to + amount, to show equality
There are four quarts to a gallon.                                            

 Pattern 6: amount + to + amount, to show ratio
He gets thirty miles to a gallon on the highway in his new car.           

 
20. To can indicate restriction.

 Pattern 1: verb + noun + to + noun
We limited him to three meals a day, with no snacks.
They confined her to jail for thirty-six hours.
                           

Typical verbs:
bind, confine, hold, limit, restrict, sentence, tie          

Pattern 2: past participle of verb (adjective) + to + noun
He is limited to three meals a day.
She is confined to jail for thirty-six hours.
                                           

21. Expressions                   

to subscribe to—to pay for and receive a periodical regularly
How many magazines do you subscribe to?
She subscribes to three daily newspapers.
                                          

 from time to time—occasionally
He calls me from time to time.            

to be used to/to be accustomed to + noun—to have adapted
He is dizzy because he is not used to the altitude.
She is nervous because she is not used to driving in traffic.
              

22 Phrasal verbs               

come to (intransitive)—regain consciousness
She fainted a few minutes ago, but fortunately came to right away.                 

see to (nonseparable)—take responsibility for a future action
You don't have to make reservations; we will see to that.                    

look forward to (nonseparable)—await with pleasure
We are looking forward to seeing you soon.